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A copyright is an exclusive right granted by law for a term of years to an author, designer, etc. for his/her original work.


The Copyright Act protects certain classes or categories of works
The following works are eligible for copyright, if they are original.

  • Literary works e.g. books and written composition novels.
  • Musical works e.g. songs.
  • Artistic works e.g. paintings and drawings.
  • Cinematograph films e.g programme-carrying signal that has been transmitted by satellite.
  • Sound recordings.
  • Broadcasts e.g. broadcasting of films or music.
  • Programme-carrying signals e.g. signals embodying a programme.
  • Published editions e.g. first print by whatever process.
  • Computer programmes

For a work to be eligble for copyright protection, it must be written down, recorded and be reduced to material form.

What constitutes copyright infringement?

  • Making photocopies for private use is not an infringement of copyright.
  • Copying a public speech or a lecture does not constitute infringement.
  • No infringement results if work is acknowledged, when one is copying or citing from another author’s work.
  • Generally, in respect of written material, the following guidelines apply:
    • Wherever possible, the author’s permission should be sought to reproduce his / her work.
    • If in an article, paper or speech, when referring to the work of another, it is required that details of the reference be provided in the form of the name of the author and details of his/her publication i.e. title of book or magazine, publisher, date of publication etc.
    • If only a small portion of the work is used, say a few sentences or a paragraph, and provided that an acknowledgement is made, permission is not needed.
    • If a "significant" section is reproduced, such as a chapter, then permission should be obtained.
    • It is generally accepted that work that is being used in academic institutions, research or for private use may be reproduced.
  • Another contentious area is the field of music.
  • Clearly if you were to copy a tape or a CD and sell this, it would represent copyright infringement (referred to as “pirating”). But when a Dee-Jay at a party plays CDs, is copyright being infringed?
  • As a general guide, copyright infringement can be said to occur where the copyrighted material of others is used for personal gain as opposed to private or personal use.
  • Copyright infringement does not occur if you copy a public speech or lecture, made for information purposes, or photocopy government publications for public usage.

What is the lifespan of copyright?

The lifespan of copyright depends on the type of work protected:

  • The copyright of literacy works lasts for 50 years after the writer has died.
  • The copyright of computer programs lasts for 50 years after the first copies were made available to the public.
  • For sound recordings, the copyright lasts for 50 years from the day the work was first broadcast.
  • For films, 50 years from when first made / shown.

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